The following is the criteria used by us to assign new Judd and/or Pollock numbers in the Pattern Concordance. These are primarily based on the way these books were written. All number assignments are placed as close to a similar design as possible.
Composition - We will attempt to follow the composition order used in Judd/Pollock where possible. Early gold coins, 1852 gold dollars for example, are ordered as follows: Gold, Silver, Copper, Brass, Copper-Nickel, Nickel. Later gold coins are ordered Gold, Copper, Aluminum, Nickel.
Judd is more sensitive to changes in composition than Pollock but there are inconsistencies especially with regard to 1896 pattern coinage. A major composition discovery such as copper-nickel, where none previously existed, would cause the addition of both a new Judd and Pollock number whereas a minor percent difference or the addition of some 'trace' elements would not.
Percentages listed for some alloys in Judd are based on historical beliefs, information given by the owners in auction catalogs, and any mint records that were available. Many of these alloys have not been tested and may not exist. They should be treated as a guide unless and until further analysis is performed.
Note: There are issues concerning the meaning of nickel and copper-nickel in Judd. Nickel represents standard coin nickel of 25% nickel to 75% copper. Copper-nickel represents both 90% copper to 10% nickel and 88% copper to 12 nickel. Other percentages including pure nickel should be specifically listed.
Design - A new design would receive a new Judd and Pollock number.
Die Variety - Judd is not sensitive to variety. Pollock is inconsistent in this area, but, generally we would assign a new Pollock number.
Edge - A new Judd and Pollock number would be assigned.
Planchet Properties - A wide planchet would be assigned a new Judd and Pollock number. Planchet thickness is not used as a criterion. A new Judd and Pollock number will be assigned for the discovery of perforated versus unperforated planchets.
Grading Certification - We will retain the Judd or Pollock number of any coin already slabbed. There are examples of coins which have been assigned numbers incorrectly in my opinion. Among these are J714/P793 which are not silver-nickel but standard coin nickel based on the research and testing of charter member David Cassel. These coins should be recertified as J715A/P794A.
Splashers - die and hub trials will be assigned new Judd & Pollock numbers. Pollock left number gaps which has allowed us to use the free numbers in between and we will use them as required. New numbers will be assigned based on the same criterion described above for regular patterns coinage except for the following.
Planchet shape and size will not be considered in the assignment of Pollock numbers for splashers. Many exist on oversized and irregularly shaped planchets.
Cardboard die trials will only receive a single Judd & Pollock number even if they have more than one image on them. The trials in the ANS and Smithsonian were given two numbers even though the trials are on one piece of cardboard. In our opinion, this was a mistake.